Essential Functions of Accounting

Essential Functions of Accounting

The functions of accounting are as follows:


This is the basic function of accounting. It is essentially concerned with not only ensuring that all business transactions of financial character are in fact recorded but also that they are recorded in an orderly manner. Recording is done in the book “Journal”.


Classification is concerned with the systematic analysis of the recorded data, with a view to group transactions or entries of one nature at one place. The work of classification is done in the book termed as “Ledger”.


This involves presenting the classified data in a manner which is understandable and useful to the internal as well as external end-users of accounting statements. This process leads to the preparation of the following statements: (1) Trial Balance, (2) Income statement (3) Balance sheet.

Analysis and Interprets:

This is the final function of accounting. The recorded financial data is analyzed and interpreted in a manner that the end-users can make a meaningful judgment about the financial condition and profitability of the business operations. The data is also used for preparing the future plan and framing of policies for executing such plans.


The accounting information after being meaningfully analyzed and interpreted has to be communicated in a proper form and manner to the proper person. This is done through preparation and distribution of accounting reports, which include besides the usual income statement and the balance sheet, additional information in the form of accounting ratios, graphs, diagrams, funds flow statements etc.


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